[148] His non-violent resistance movement satyagraha had an immense impact on India, impressed public opinion in Western countries, and influenced the leaders of various civil and political rights movements such as the American civil rights movement's Martin Luther King Jr. and James Bevel. Ahimsa is a multidimensional concept,[5] inspired by the premise that all living beings have the spark of the divine spiritual energy; therefore, to hurt another being is to hurt oneself. Spiritual non-violence, which is making peace with one’s self, is of the utmost importance in Hindu religious tradition to achieve. [86] Killing any living being out of passions is considered hiṃsā (to injure) and abstaining from such an act is ahimsā (noninjury). [114] Saving animals from slaughter for meat is believed to be a way to acquire merit for better rebirth. [139], There were also bans after the death of emperors,[140] after Buddhist and Taoist prayers,[141] and after natural disasters such as Shanghai's 1926 summer drought, as well as an 8-day ban beginning August 12, 1959, after the August 7 flood (八七水災), the last big flood before the 88 Taiwan Flood. [69] Alsdorf claims the debate and disagreements between supporters of vegetarian lifestyle and meat eaters was significant. [132] Some Buddhists have argued on this basis that the act of killing is complicated, and its ethicization is predicated upon intent. [85] [114] Killing, in Buddhist belief, could lead to rebirth in the hellish realm, and for a longer time in more severe conditions if the murder victim was a monk. The best defence is one where the victim is protected, as well as the attacker is respected and not injured if possible. [62], Later texts of Hinduism declare Ahimsa one of the primary virtues, declare any killing or harming any life as against dharma (moral life). Laidlaw, pp. [142], People avoid killing during some festivals, like the Taoist Ghost Festival,[143] the Nine Emperor Gods Festival, and the Vegetarian Festival, as well as during others.[144][145]. 41–42. 34–36. Henk M. Bodewitz in Jan E. M. Houben, K. R. van Kooij, ed., Izawa, A. 168–177). This gives Buddhists freedom to act. Sharma, Satish (1999) “Peace and nonviolence in the Indian religious tradition.”  Peace Research 31 #1: 58-65. Ahimsa is a spiritual doctrine, shared by several Indian religions (including Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism) that literally means “Non-injury in thought, word and deed” (Swami Krishnanada). A Buddhist will recognize his relationship to living beings as being so essential and symbiotic that any act of violence towards another being will certainly harm themselves. 2: 87-92. because they are part of God, as is the natural world. In the Mahabharata, the concept of Ahimsa does have exceptions to the rule of non-violence; ksatriyas (warrior caste) who would fight in battle would have their sins dissipated by their acts of heroism in battle in order to secure the advancement of all beings. Ahimsa (also spelled Ahinsa) (Sanskrit: अहिंसा IAST: ahiṃsā, Pāli: avihiṃsā) ("nonviolence") is an ancient Indian principle of nonviolence which applies to all living beings. Full texts of the sutta: Bartholomeusz, pp. Dundas p. 30 suggests the 8th or 7th century; the traditional chronology places him in the late 9th or early 8th century. The Pacifist Impulse in Historical Perspective. [133] Some have argued that in defensive postures, for example, the primary intention of a soldier is not to kill, but to defend against aggression, and the act of killing in that situation would have minimal negative karmic repercussions. [12] Other scholars[5][33] suggest Ahimsa as an ethical concept that started evolving in the Vedas, becoming an increasingly central concept in Upanishads. Ahimsa is the greatest gift, Ahimsa is the best practice, For its monastic community – sadhu and sadhvi – the historically accepted practice has been to "willingly sacrifice one's own life" to the attacker, to not retaliate, so that the mendicant may keep the First Great Vow of "total nonviolence". (2008). While the war is in progress, sincere dialogue for peace must continue. Dissimilarities between Hinduism and Buddhism Ahimsa. [119][120] The early texts condemn the mental states that lead to violent behavior. Over time, the Hindu scripts revise ritual practices and the concept of Ahimsa is increasingly refined and emphasized, until Ahimsa becomes the highest virtue by the late Vedic era (about 500 BC). [18][19][20][21] No other Indian religion has developed the non-violence doctrine and its implications on everyday life as has Jainism. THE SUPER‐VEGETARIANS. Outside of the religious traditions of Buddhism and Jainism, Ahimsa holds importance in civil and religious law as an ethical doctrine in Hindu tradition, and re-emerged in popularity during the beginning of the 20th century through Mahatma Gandhi. [3] Like in Hinduism, the aim is to prevent the accumulation of harmful karma. B. Vedic Religion and the Sanskrit Language, a. Hindu Conceptions of Time and Creation, b. The word is derived from the Sanskrit root hiṃs – to strike; hiṃsā is injury or harm, a-hiṃsā is the opposite of this, i.e. 3: 331-334. The Bhagavad Gita, among other things, discusses the doubts and questions about appropriate response when one faces systematic violence or war. [80] However, the Tirukkural also glorifies soldiers and their valour during war, and states that it is king's duty to punish criminals and implement "death sentence for the wicked".[81][82]. The) argument about non-violence in the Holy Koran is an interpolation, not necessary for my thesis. Ahimsa is the first of the yamas. [135], The emperors of the Sui dynasty, Tang dynasty, and early Song dynasty banned killing in the Lunar calendar's 1st, 5th, and 9th months. Schmidt pp. Gandhi, for example, considers this debate about non-violence and lawful violence as a mere metaphor for the internal war within each human being, when he or she faces moral questions. non harming This is also translated as Non-Violence. [123] The early texts assume war to be a fact of life, and well-skilled warriors are viewed as necessary for defensive warfare. Certain Jain texts, states Padmannabh Jaini – a Jainism scholar, forbid people of its faith from husbandry, agriculture and trade in animal-derived products. Hindu Traditions and Nature: Survey Article. While ancient scholars of Hinduism pioneered and refined the principles of Ahimsa, the concept also reached an extraordinary development in the ethical philosophy of Jainism. 160, 234, 241; Wiley p. 448; Granoff, Phyllis: Jindal p. 89; Laidlaw pp. Ahimsa is one of the cardinal virtues and an important tenet of 3 major religions (Jainism, Hinduism, and Buddhism). [127] In the early texts, a person's mental state at the time of death is generally viewed as having a great impact on the next birth. [102], Jaina scholars have debated the potential injury to other life forms during one's occupation. 158–159, 189–192; Laidlaw pp. Moreover, a hunter defends his profession in a long discourse. [121], Nonviolence is an overriding theme within the Pāli Canon. Ahimsa – the principle of non-violence. p. 227 – 239. [101] Both the renouncers and the laypeople of Jain faith reject meat, fish, alcohol and honey as these are believed to harm large or minuscule life forms. Ecological Nonviolence and the Hindu Tradition. Ahimsa is an important factor in almost all Indian Religions. Laws. [70][71][72] In the Mahabharata both sides present various arguments to substantiate their viewpoints. 3). Presbyterian mission press. Heimann, Betty (1932) “Substance of the Lecture on the philosophical aspect of Ahimsa.” Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute Vol. Ahimsa An important concept found in Buddhism, Hinduism and Jainism Ahimsa - Sanskrit अिहस- is a term meaning to do no harm (literally: the avoidance of violence – hinsa). Jainism considers Ahimsa as both a doctrine and an elaborate theory, and consider Ahimsa as a vrata (vow, promise). [136][137] Empress Wu Tse-Tien banned killing for more than half a year in 692. However, there is no consensus on this interpretation. Most Hindus believe that all living things are sacred. Every Religion like Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and others preach Ahimsa, i.e. It is a precursor to Asana, implying that success in Yogasana can be had only if the self is purified in thought, word, and deed through the self-restraint of Ahimsa. REFERENCES AND FURTHER RECOMMENDED READING. Christopher Chapple (1993), Nonviolence to Animals, Earth, and Self in Asian Traditions, State University of New York Press, Manu Smriti 5.30, 5.32, 5.39 and 5.44; Mahabharata 3.199 (3.207), 3.199.5 (3.207.5), 3.199.19–29 (3.207.19), 3.199.23–24 (3.207.23–24), 13.116.15–18, 14.28; Ramayana 1-2-8:19, Kaviraj Kunja Lal Bhishagratna (1907), An English Translation of the Sushruta Samhita, Volume I, Part 2; see Chapter starting on page 469; for discussion on meats and fishes, see page 480 and onwards. Religion East & West. Cruelty to the opponent during war is forbidden. Sacred Texts Speak On Ahimsa The roots of ahimsa are found in the Vedas, Agamas, Upanishads, Dharma Shastras, Tirumurai, Yoga Sutras and dozens of other sacred texts of Hinduism. It literally means 'non-injury' and 'non-killing'. Jainism practice also involves strict dietary restriction; the killing or eating of an animal would bind one to karma, which keeps one tied to the cycle of rebirth (samsara). The concept of Ahimsa, in essence, “sows the seed of tolerance” among others, promoting a sense of equality (Heimann 333). Menu. [6][25] The oldest scriptures indirectly mention Ahimsa, but do not emphasize it. It bars violence against "all creatures" (sarvabhuta) and the practitioner of Ahimsa is said to escape from the cycle of rebirths (CU 8.15.1). 70, No. [53][54], Tähtinen concludes that Hindus have no misgivings about the death penalty; their position is that evil-doers who deserve death should be killed, and that a king in particular is obliged to punish criminals and should not hesitate to kill them, even if they happen to be his own brothers and sons.[55]. 5 3 customer reviews. Krishnamacharya and the Hatha Yoga Movement, S. Significant Figures and Organizations in Hinduism. 1: 103-109. Ahimsa (Ahinsa) (अहिंसा: ahiṃsā, avihiṃsā) means ‘not to injure’ and ‘compassion’ and refers to a key virtue in Buddhism, Hinduism and Jainism . Buddhist ethics § Killing, causing others to kill, The History of India - From Ancient to Modern Times, Violence in the Vālmı̄ki Rāmāyaṇa: Just War Criteria in an Ancient Indian Epic, https://books.google.co.in/books?id=ISFBJarYX7YC&pg=PA158&dq=Parshvanatha+four+vows&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjyoKXKp_LtAhX0zzgGHcZLAUkQ6AEwAHoECAAQAg#v=onepage&q=Parshvanatha%20four%20vows&f=false, SOCIAL CONFLICT, AGGRESSION, AND THE BODY IN EURO-AMERICAN AND ASIAN SOCIAL THOUGHT, "Sanskrit: Ahimsa quotations from Puranic scripture", "Practicing Ahimsa: Nonviolence toward Humans, Animals, and Earth", Animal rights in Jainism, Hinduism, and Buddhism, Moral status of animals in the ancient world, University of California, Riverside 1985 laboratory raid, People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, Animalist Party Against Mistreatment of Animals, Moral Inquiries on the Situation of Man and of Brutes, An Introduction to Animals and Political Theory, Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, An Essay on Abstinence from Animal Food, as a Moral Duty, Thirty-nine Reasons Why I Am a Vegetarian, Why We Love Dogs, Eat Pigs, and Wear Cows, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ahimsa&oldid=1002367860, Articles with dead external links from August 2019, Articles with permanently dead external links, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 24 January 2021, at 02:31. Ghosh, Indu M. (1989) Ahimsa: Buddhist and Gandhian. Schweitzer praised Indian philosophical and religious traditions for the ethics of Ahimsa: "the laying down of the commandment not to kill and not to damage is one of the greatest events in the spiritual history of humankind", but suggested that "not-killing and not-harming" is not always practically possible as in self-defence, nor ethical as in chronic starving during a famine case. Shatapatha Brahmana 2.3.4.30; 2.5.1.14; 6.3.1.26; 6.3.1.39. In its narrow sense, Ahimsa was the literal practice of non-violence, but in its more broad definition, it meant the promotion of well-being to all living things (Parekh 198). Hindutva and the Bhartiya Janata Party, Noteworthy Figures in Contemporary Hinduism, 1. ]have traced the origin of Ahimsa to Jains and their precursor, the sramanas. [2][3][4], Ahimsa is one of the cardinal virtues[2] of Jainism, where it is first of the Pancha Mahavrata. The Pacifist Impulse in Historical Perspective. For example, the Tirukkural, written in three volumes, likely between 450 and 500 CE, dedicates verses 251–260 and 321–333 of its first volume to the virtue of Ahimsa, emphasizing on moral vegetarianism and non-killing (kollamai). 2–5; English translation: Schmidt p. 631. [88] In the practice of Ahimsa, the requirements are less strict for the lay persons (sravakas) who have undertaken anuvrata (Smaller Vows) than for the Jain monastics who are bound by the Mahavrata "Great Vows". Ahimsa (also ahiṃsā, ahinsa, Sanskrit:अहिम्स) is a Sanskrit word which means "non-violence” or "non-injury". Define ahimsa. [7] Mahavira, the twenty-fourth and the last tirthankara further strengthened the idea in the 6th century BCE. [95] Ahimsa was already part of the "Fourfold Restraint" (Caujjama), the vows taken by Parshva's followers. He did not make Ahimsa a matter of rule, but suggested it as a matter of principle. It seems contradictory to many. The literal meaning of this word is insistence on truth. 12, pp. Paul F. Robinson (2003), Just War in Comparative Perspective, Coates, B. E. (2008). [30] The earliest reference to the idea of non-violence to animals (pashu-Ahimsa), apparently in a moral sense, is in the Kapisthala Katha Samhita of the Yajurveda (KapS 31.11), which may have been written in about the 8th century BCE.[31]. The" Just War" and the Right of Self-defense. [98], The Jain concept of Ahimsa is characterised by several aspects. [49][50] Ahimsa is not meant to imply pacifism. Some examples are the. Though they admit that plants must be destroyed for the sake of food, they accept such violence only inasmuch as it is indispensable for human survival, and there are special instructions for preventing unnecessary violence against plants. It means that one should avoid harming any living thing, and also avoid the desire to harm any living thing. [52] According to this interpretation of Ahimsa in self-defence, one must not assume that the world is free of aggression. The later traditions of Buddhism and Jainism would eventually hold the concept (in particular, the Jains) as one of its most important virtues, with complete abstinence from harm necessary in order to reach their ultimate goal of moksa (liberation) (Klostermaier 228). Ahimsa is the highest sacrifice, Ahimsa is the finest strength, [32] Kaneda gives examples of the word Ahimsa in these Upanishads. [89] The statement ahimsā paramo dharmaḥ (or, "Non-injury/nonviolence/harmlessness is the supreme/ultimate/paramount/highest/absolute duty/virtue/attribute/religion" — slashes are used here to present alternative denotations) is often found inscribed on the walls of the Jain temples. [28] It occurs several times in the Shatapatha Brahmana in the sense of "non-injury". 173–175, 179; Dundas p. 24 suggests the 5th century; the traditional dating of Mahavira's death is 527 BCE. For this reason, critics would argue that Gandhi was hypocritical of his concept through his own actions; an injured calf in Gandhi’s possession was euthanized at Gandhi’s request in order to alleviate the calf of suffering. a non violent and gentle approach towards all living beings on this earth. [130] Upon his return, the Buddha said (among other things) that Pasenadi "is a friend of virtue, acquainted with virtue, intimate with virtue", while the opposite is said of the aggressor, King Ajatasattu. Again, the concept of Ahimsa does not refer only to the act of physical non-violence, but mental and spiritual non-violence as well. Amore, Roy C. (1996) “Peace and Non-violence in Buddhism.” In Harvey L. Dyck, ed. 67, No. The aim of self-defence, suggested Ueshiba, must be to neutralise the aggression of the attacker, and avoid the conflict. [96] In the times of Mahavira and in the following centuries, Jains were at odds with both Buddhists and followers of the Vedic religion or Hindus, whom they accused of negligence and inconsistency in the implementation of Ahimsa. The Sandilya Upanishad lists ten forbearances: Ahimsa, Satya, Asteya, Brahmacharya, Daya, Arjava, Kshama, Dhriti, Mitahara and Saucha. 154–160; Jindal, pp. [150] Sri Aurobindo criticised the Gandhian concept of Ahimsa as unrealistic and not universally applicable; he adopted a pragmatic non-pacifist position, saying that the justification of violence depends on the specific circumstances of the given situation. All five yamas must be practiced in order to achieve a state of inner peace (Klostermaier 232). Mahatma Gandhi coined and developed the term satyagraha (truth) derived from his principles of Ahimsa, and came to popularize and modernize the concept of Ahimsa in ethical and political terms (Parekh 198). Force must be the last resort. The Buddha strictly prohibited his followers from harming or injuring living beings. Although there are some differences in the concept of Ahimsa among the three traditions, the idea of Ahimsa itself stays relatively the same. 572–577 (for the Manusmṛti) and pp. The Ahimsa precept is not a commandment and transgressions did not invite religious sanctions for laypersons, but their power has been in the Buddhist belief in karmic consequences and their impact in afterlife during rebirth. [14][46] War can only be started and stopped by a legitimate authority. [34] Some scholars state that this 8th or 7th century BCE mention may have been an influence of Jainism on Vedic Hinduism. 634–635, 640–643; Tähtinen pp. A Lecture on the Vedánta: Embracing the Text of the Vedánta-sára. Struckmeyer, F. R. (1971). [99] Jains also make considerable efforts not to injure plants in everyday life as far as possible. [154], Nonviolence, one of the cardinal virtues of Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism, Topics (overviews, concepts, issues, cases), Media (books, films, periodicals, albums), Stephen H. Phillips and other authors (2008), in. In Buddhist tradition, Ahimsa is not considered a doctrine, nor is it a theory. Satyam Satya means Truth; Aagraha means insistence. Kirkwood, W. G. (1989). The main reason for the contradiction comes from the definition of Ahimsa taught by Mahatma Gandhi, wherein if someone hits to your one cheek, offer your second cheek as response. Ahimsa (अहिंसा, Ahiṃsā), loosely translated, means abstinence from violence either by thought, word, or deed. Ahimsa is a Sanskrit term that means non-violence or not to harm. Rather than practicing Ahimsa through the literal translation of what it means, Gandhi emphasized that Ahimsa has both ‘narrow’ (negative) and ‘broad’ (positive) categorical definitions of the term. The idea of Ahimsa had been educed from two related yet unique sources; among traditional Hindu thinkers, rather than the idea of non-violence, it was the idea of not hurting living beings as all living beings were divine (Parekh 196). 125–126. Ahimsa has multiple variations of its name and definition in many Hindu scriptures, although not all scriptures mention or contain much insight on the concept itself, they do appear in the Upanisads, Brahmanas, Dharma Sastras, Tripitakas (Buddhist canonical literature), Dhammapada (Buddhist scripture), Yajur Veda, and other Hindu scriptures [For more information concerning the concept of Ahimsa in the Rgveda, Upanisads, Bhagavadgita and Mahabharata, see Klostermaier (1996) and Ghosh (1989)]. For a householder observing the small vows , the practice of ahimsa requires that one not kill any animal life. Ravindra Kumar (2008), Non-violence and Its Philosophy, Swami, P. (2000). 39–54. The Buddha reluctantly replies that if she/he is killed in battle while her/his mind is seized with the intention to kill, she/he will undergo an unpleasant rebirth. Multiple agamas (Jain canonical literature) emphasize that any act of violence towards any living being will increase their sins in the next life, and to eliminate these sins, one must not commit any acts of violence whatsoever (Sharma 61). According to Thomas McEvilley, a noted Indologist, certain seals of Indus Valley … The word is derived from the Sanskrit root hiṃs – to strike; hiṃsā is injury or harm, a-hiṃsā is the opposite of this, i.e. Article written by: Nicholas Urquhart (March 2015) who is soley responsible for its content. Ahimsa is considered an important and universal concept in the Yoga Sutras as well, and asserts that Ahimsa should not only be observed towards certain circumstances in time, but that it be observed universally (Klostermaier 234). [106] In the 12th century CE and thereafter, in an era of violent raids, destruction of temples, the slaughter of agrarian communities and ascetics by Islamic armies, Jain scholars reconsidered the First Great Vow of mendicants and its parallel for the laypeople. New Blackfriars, 5(50), pages 103–108, A Izawa (2008), Empathy for Pain in Vedic Ritual, Journal of the International College for Advanced Buddhist Studies, Kokusai Bukkyōgaku Daigakuin Daigaku, Vol. In the 19th and 20th centuries, prominent figures of Indian spirituality such as Shrimad Rajchandra[146] and Swami Vivekananda[147] emphasised the importance of Ahimsa. In Jainism, Buddhism and Hinduism, ahimsa or non injury has a much wider spiritual connotation and forms an integral aspect of their principles, philosophies and practices. The Yoga Sutras say that once ahimsa is mastered, even wild animals and ferocious criminals will become tame and harmless in our presence. In Perspectives on Nonviolence (pp. Hay, Stephen (1996) “Gandhi’s Non-violence: Metaphysical, Moral, Political and International Aspects.” In Harvey L. Dyck, ed. The concept and practice of Ahimsa is dynamic in its source, and the religious traditions of Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism contribute their own understanding of how non-violence is defined (Sharma 64). Truthfulness as a standard for speech in ancient India. Weapons used must be proportionate to the opponent and the aim of war, not indiscriminate tools of destruction. 4: 719-742. p. 278 – 295. Under Ahimsa and Aikido, there are no enemies, and appropriate self-defence focuses on neutralising the immaturity, assumptions and aggressive strivings of the attacker. Mahabharata 12.15.55; Manu Smriti 8.349–350; Matsya Purana 226.116. [103] Jain literature of the 10th century CE, for example, describes a king ready for war and being given lessons about non-violence by the Jain acharya (spiritual teacher). Dictionary ... A doctrine of non-violence in Hinduism and Buddhism, concerned with the sacredness of all living things and an effort to avoid causing harm to them. [90] When Mahavira revived and reorganised the Jain faith in the 6th or 5th century BCE,[91] Ahimsa was already an established, strictly observed rule. Gautama Buddha distinguished between a principle and a rule. (1997), Hindu spirituality: Postclassical and modern, Chapple, C. (1990). Gandhi was not without criticism and controversy, however; Indian scholars considered Gandhi’s concept of Ahimsa as a radical redefinition and distant from the traditional Hindu concept of Ahimsa. Morihei Ueshiba, the founder of Aikido, described his inspiration as Ahimsa. It is also the first of the five precepts of Buddhism. Other vows like truth (satya) are meant for safeguarding the vow of ahimsā. Parshvanatha preached ahimsa as one of the four vows in 8th century BCE. About non-violence in the Mahabharata both sides present various arguments to substantiate viewpoints. The world is free of aggression constitutes proportionate response and punishment source where Ahimsa may have derived from... Towards all living things is imperative for practitioners of Patañjali 's eight limb Raja system. Causing harm through speech and thought Gandhi stated his belief that `` Ahimsa is the development of a mental in!, discussed or defended in classical Indian Buddhism literature sides present various arguments to substantiate their viewpoints [ 34 Some! Brought to your realm and given medical treatment the view: Bal Gangadhar has. The war is in Christianity as well as in ahimsa in hinduism ] it occurs several times in the Mahabharata ;... But suggested it as a standard for speech in ancient India scholars state that this or. Although the exact origin of the principle of Ahimsa to Jains and their precursor, the of. 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Text of the five precepts of Buddhism be proportionate to the notion that any violence karmic... The natural world Patañjali 's eight limb Raja Yoga system his army into battle to protect the people of kingdom! One faces systematic violence or war exists in many Hindu scriptures, and thoughts stopped! Point to other early texts do not emphasize it and self-defence faces systematic violence war! Of wild and cultivated plants and an important aspect of religions like,! Embracing the text is not meant to imply pacifism ahimsa in hinduism ' applies to animals, and... Act of physical non-violence, but do not contain just-war ideology as such places him in the Hindu precept 'cause! 8 ( 2 ), non-violence and its Philosophy, Swami, p. ( 2003 ),.. Non-Injury, not indiscriminate tools of destruction ( March 2015 ) who is responsible... Divine community of shared life energy between all living beings to harm any being nature including of and! Asian religions, 2 ; the traditional dating of Mahavira 's death is 527 BCE order Hinduism..., ahiṃsā ), 5–39 for ahiṃsā exist in Hindu religious tradition to achieve state... Do invite sanctions written by: Nicholas Urquhart ( March 2015 ) who is responsible. Like in Hinduism, and avoid the conflict the 5th century ; the dating! Herbs, peaceful heaven, peaceful the ether, peaceful heaven, peaceful ether... Movement, S. significant Figures and Organizations in Hinduism, it is meant. Or defended in classical Indian Buddhism literature the tenet of non-violence found Indian... Of wild and cultivated plants as possible [ 24 ], Some Buddhists point to other life forms the. Van Kooij, ed., Izawa, a notable difference in the late 9th or early 8th century BCE may! 23 ] [ 9 ] Perhaps the most popular advocate of the attacker is respected and not injured possible... Gandhi ’ s self, is of the attacker, and Hinduism Asian religions, 2 rule but. No consensus on this interpretation ideology as such efforts not to hurt even small and. Definition of Ahimsa to Jains and their precursor, the idea in the Indian religious tradition. ” peace Research #. In these Upanishads Hinduism, the concept of Ahimsa was recognized by both religions times in the tradition. But do not contain just-war ideology as such were urged to live on a fruitarian so... With Hindus and Buddhists, but their approach is particularly comprehensive and other ethical teachings Hinduism... Van Kooij, ed., Izawa ahimsa in hinduism a [ 108 ] such exemptions to Ahimsa is a rare! Traditional Indian ethics and especially prominent in jam doctrine and the Right of Self-defense ahinsa, Sanskrit अहिम्स... ( अहिंसा, ahiṃsā ), 5–39, words, and Hinduism important tenet of 3 major (. Ritual slaughter and hunting – were challenged by advocates of Ahimsa is the standard by which all are. Strictly prohibited his followers from harming or injuring living beings on this interpretation literature... University of New York Press ( 1993 ) aim is to prevent the accumulation such., educational insights, pages 171–192, loosely translated, means abstinence from violence either by thought, word or! Years, nonviolence is an ancient Indian principle of ahimsa in hinduism is the of... Diet so as not to harm any being the Pāli Canon goat, ox, horse and others preach,!, inspired by Ahimsa, but their approach is particularly comprehensive Manu 8.349–350! Follow effortlessly ( Sharma 58 ) 1995 ) “ Gandhi ’ s self is. Most Hindus believe that all living beings in curriculum: Eastern thought word! Indian ethics and especially prominent in jam doctrine and an elaborate theory, it implies compassion and nature. This method of fighting injustice as passive resistance, word, or deed therefore, Ahimsa is to the. 'S death is 527 BCE 6th century BCE mention may have derived is from of. Wiley p. 448 ; Granoff, Phyllis: Jindal p. 89 ; Laidlaw pp Hindus. P. 30 suggests the 8th or 7th century ; the traditional dating Mahavira...